Which uBiome product is right for you?

SmartGut

Doctor-ordered gut health test

SmartJane

Doctor-ordered women’s health test

Explorer

Discover your microbiome without the help of a doctor

Who is it for?

Patients with chronic gut conditions such as IBD or IBS, or symptoms such as gas, bloating or diarrhea.

Patients with the desire to, alongside their healthcare provider, learn more about their own vaginal health and how to improve conditions, such as discharges or infections, through lifestyle or diet.

Health and wellness tool to help you better discover how diet and lifestyle affect your microbiome.

Doctor authorization required?

Yes

Yes

No

Where is it available?

US and Canada (other countries coming soon)

US and Canada (other countries coming soon)

203 countries and regions where online payments can be made with a credit card or PayPal

What is the price?

uBiome clinical tests are fully or partially covered by most health insurance companies under “out-of-network” healthcare benefits. We have patient assistance programs in place to assist eligible patients with the remaining patient responsibility.

uBiome clinical tests are fully or partially covered by most health insurance companies under “out-of-network” healthcare benefits. We have patient assistance programs in place to assist eligible patients with the remaining patient responsibility.

From $89 for one site to $399 for five sites.

Targeted at which body site(s)?

Gut microbiome exclusively

Vaginal microbiome

Gut, nose, oral, skin or genital microbiome.

Suitable for other sampling purposes?

SmartGut is solely for adult gut samples.

SmartJane is solely for adult vaginal samples

Yes! Sample kids, pets, home environment, etc.

Any age requirements?

Available to all ages, parental permission needed if under 18.

Available to everyone aged 18 years and older.

Available to all ages, parental permission needed if under 18.

How is sample collected?

Easy self-sampling at home, takes under three minutes.

Easy self-sampling at home, takes under three minutes.

Easy self-sampling at home, takes under three minutes.

What do results show?

Detects beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms associated with specific infections, lifestyle choices, and gut conditions including Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Detects beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms associated with specific infections, such as cervicitis, bacterial vaginosis or vaginitis.

Interactive online tools enable you to explore how your microbiome compares to others, and to monitor yourself over time.

Where does processing take place?

In our San Francisco laboratory, which is CLIA-certified and accredited by the College of American Pathologists (CAP), a standard only achieved by the top 3% of laboratories in the world.

In our San Francisco laboratory, which is CLIA-certified and accredited by the College of American Pathologists (CAP), a standard only achieved by the top 3% of laboratories in the world.

In our San Francisco laboratory, which is CLIA-certified and accredited by the College of American Pathologists (CAP), a standard only achieved by the top 3% of laboratories in the world.

Can you participate in scientific research?

Optionally enables you to anonymously participate in scientific research aimed at advancing understanding of the human microbiome.

Optionally enables you to anonymously participate in scientific research aimed at advancing understanding of the human microbiome.

Optionally enables you to anonymously participate in scientific research aimed at advancing understanding of the human microbiome.

Your gut has something to tell you.

Smart, actionable insights to improve your gut health. Learn more.

What is diarrhea?

Diarrhea occurs when one passes loose or liquid stools more frequently than normal. Typically, three or more of these passages per day is considered diarrhea.1

Diarrhea has been a major health problem throughout history, affecting mostly children and the elderly. It remains a significant cause of disease and death worldwide.2 In the U.S. in 2003, the estimated prevalence was 3-7% in adults, and 8% in children 5 years old or younger. 83% of deaths from acute diarrhea occur in elderly patients.3

What are common symptoms?

Acute diarrhea lasts less than two weeks. Chronic diarrhea lasts longer, and may involve more severe diseases. The most common symptoms of infectious diarrhea are (in order of frequency)1,4:

  • Loose or liquid stool
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Bloating
  • Nausea
  • Fever
  • Bloody stool

What are the causes?

Infectious agents – such as parasites, bacteria, and viruses – are the most common cause of diarrhea. Parasites can cause severe chronic diarrhea, while diarrhea caused by bacterial infections usually lasts one week or less.

Common bacterial causes of acute diarrhea are enterotoxigenic, including Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Salmonella, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.1 In industrialized regions, Clostridium difficile has been related to recurrent diarrhea after antibiotic use, particularly among hospitalized patients. Noroviruses are common viral causes of infectious diarrhea.

Other, non-infectious causes of diarrhea include rare genetic mutations in intestinal proteins, and inflammation as a consequence of autoimmune diseases, such as irritable bowel disease and celiac disease.2

The main risk factors for diarrhea are5:

  • Antibiotic use
  • Consumption of food associated with foodborne illness
  • Fecal-oral contact
  • Immunosuppression
  • Infectious exposures (i.e. daycares)
  • Poor access to appropriate care
  • Poor hygiene
  • Poverty
  • Pre-existing intestinal infections
  • Travelling to developing countries
  • Undernutrition
produce enterotoxins that affect the intestines, generating effects similar to food poisoning.

How does this topic relate to my microbiome?

A patient with diarrhea has a disrupted gut environment, in which diarrhea-causing agents overgrow. This further disturbs the balance and normal functioning of the gut microbiota.6 Several studies have shown that C. difficile causes a decrease in the number of Bacteroides and Firmicutes in the gut of patients with diarrhea compared to healthy individuals.7 Certain probiotics can restore the gut microbiota in patients with recurring diarrhea and other intestinal diseases.4,8

Which diseases/topics are related to diarrhea?

Conditions related to diarrhea are3,4,5

  • Celiac disease
  • Food intolerance
  • Food poisoning
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Irritable bowel syndrome

Immunocompromised patients are susceptible to less common gastrointestinal pathogens. Diarrhea resulting from these pathogens is a major cause of death for HIV-infected patients. Even non-fatal chronic diarrhea can greatly reduce quality of life.9

How can people take action?

For correct examination and treatment, consult your healthcare provider, since some cases of diarrhea require prescription medication. Due to the large volume of liquid lost during diarrhea, the first treatment for patients is often rehydration.10 Drinking solutions containing water, salt, and sugar – such as diluted fruit juices, broths, or soups – is recommended. Adequate nutrition can also help restore normal functioning in the intestine. Boiled food with salt is preferable, while dairy products (except yogurt) and foods with a high fat content should be avoided.11 Probiotics can prevent and reduce the duration of infectious diarrhea.4,12

References

1. Dupont, H. L. (2016). Persistent diarrhea a clinical review. JAMA – Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(24), 2712–2723.

2. Thiagarajah, J. R., Donowitz, M., & Verkman, A. S. (2015). Secretory diarrhoea: Mechanisms and emerging therapies. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 12(8), 446–457.

3. DuPont, H. L. (2014). Acute Infectious Diarrhea in Immunocompetent Adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(16), 1532–1540.

4. Guarino, A., & Guandalini, S. (2015). Probiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea. J.Clin.Gastroenterol., 45(December), S37–S45.

5. Das, J. K., & Bhutta, Z. A. (2016). Global challenges in acute diarrhea. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 32(1).

6. Balamurugan, R., Janardhan, H. P., George, S., Raghava, M. V., Muliyil, J., & Ramakrishna, B. S. (2008). Molecular studies of fecal anaerobic commensal bacteria in acute diarrhea in children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 46(5), 514–519.

7. Chang, J. Y., Antonopoulos, D. A., Kalra, A., Tonelli, A., Khalife, W. T., Schmidt, T. M., & Young, V. B. (2008). Decreased Diversity of the Fecal Microbiome in Recurrent Clostridium difficile –Associated Diarrhea. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197(3), 435–438.

8. Gareau, M. G., Sherman, P. M., & Walker, W. A. (2010). Probiotics and the gut microbiota in intestinal health and disease. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 7(9), 503–514.

9. Siddiqui, U., Bini, E. J., Chandarana, K., Leong, J., Ramsetty, S., Schiliro, D., & Poles, M. (2007). Prevalence and Impact of Diarrhea on Health-related Quality of Life in HIV-infected Patients in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 41(5), 484–490.

10. Riddle, M. S., Dupont, H. L., & Connor, B. A. (2016). ACG clinical guideline: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of acute diarrheal infections in adults. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 111(5), 602–622.

11. Duggan, C., Santosham, M., & Glass, R. I. (1992). The management of acute diarrhea in children: oral rehydration, maintenance, and nutritional therapy. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR. Recommendations and Reports : Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports, 41(RR-16), 1–20.

12. McFarland, L. V. (2007). Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of traveler’s diarrhea. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 5(2), 97–105.